Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYSTâ„¢ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD

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Vegetable oils and animal fats and their by-products can contain considerable amounts of free fatty acids. In another embodiment, a portion of alcohol, water and homogenous catalyst 8 are removed from the first reaction mixture 3 contained in unit by decantation or centrifugation, leaving b20 principally dry reaction mixture 9.

USB2 – Dual catalyst esterification – Google Patents

A method for producing esters, comprising: Fatty acid distillate with a free fatty acid content of Without limiting the scope of the invention, one such resin is Amberlyst BD In one embodiment the FFA content of the reaction mixture is consistently below 0.

In another embodiment the homogenous catalyst is introduced to the reactor separately from the alcohol 2 and the feedstock containing carboxylic acid 1. In one embodiment, alcohol and water and other volatiles 11 are removed from the second reaction mixture 10 contained in unit by distillation leaving a dry reaction mixture 12 and a portion of homogenous catalyst.

amverlyst What is needed in the art are methods that improve upon the respective challenges and disadvantages posed by homogenous and heterogeneous catalyst use for esterification of carboxylic acids. In one embodiment, the alcohol described in the invention is dry methanol. In any embodiment, dry reaction mixture 9 proceeds to a second reactor which may or may not contain heterogeneous catalyst.

Process for extraction and catalytic esterification of fatty acids found in sewage scum. In one embodiment the pressure is maintained between 0 and psig.


The operating conditions and provisions of the first reactor are as previously described. The pretreatment steps may bbd20 drying, filtering including in-line sock filters, ceramic membrane filters, absorbent media, etc.

These embodiments are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention, and it is to be understood that modifications to the various disclosed embodiments may be made by a skilled artisan. Approximately g of feedstock was fed over The method of claim 1wherein said heterogeneous catalyst is an ion exchange resin catalyst. However, there are unresolved concerns about catalyst fouling, durability, stability, activity, and replacement schedule with continuous use of commercial-grade higher FFA feedstocks.

The reaction should take place at an elevated temperature to improve reaction kinetics.

In one embodiment, the operating conditions in units and are substantially similar to those described previously for unit In one embodiment the carboxylic acids contained in the feedstock are free fatty acids. This process reduces the overall yield of feedstock to FAAE though and generates a stream of concentrated FFA that requires finding a new end-use, further processing or disposal.

Another common method to remove small amounts of FFA is by adding a base reactant such as sodium hydroxide in order to saponify the FFA to soap which amberlys removal by water washing and filtration.

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In a vertical configuration, the reactants may flow upwards or downwards through the reactor After a prescribed residence time and set of operating conditions the second reaction mixture exits the reactor with reduced amberljst fatty acids bc20 enters a separation stage.

It is technically feasible to regenerate deactivated ion exchange amberlyts with strong acids hydrochloric, sulfuric, and possibly methane sulfonic. Some variations of the present invention consist of a method of esterification using a dual catalyst process that produces a product stream with sufficiently low FFA in which the amount of FFA in the product stream leaving the process remains stable over time.


According to the invention in its most basic form, carboxylic acids are converted into esters by esterification with alcohol and a dual catalyst.

Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a heterogeneous catalyst.

Amebrlyst, prior to any reaction vessels described in this invention, in one embodiment the pretreated feedstock is passed through a bed of ion exchange resin for the purpose of removing impurities that may deactivate our foul the heterogeneous catalyst. For a variety of feedstocks and experimental conditions increasing product FFA trends have been observed with Amberlyst ion exchange resin catalyst supporting the catalyst deactivation theory.

The method of claim 19wherein said second reaction mixture has a free fatty acid content below 0. In one embodiment, operating conditions of unit are selected to minimize the amount of homogenous catalyst in stream 6 thereby maximizing the amount of the homogenous catalyst in stream 7.

Other embodiments that do not provide all of the features and advantages set forth herein may also be utilized, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

However, catalyst regeneration requires capital and operating expenditures for additional process units and typically cannot recover the initial level of activity.

The method of claim 27wherein at least one of additional alcohol and additional homogenous catalyst is added to said second reactor. The method of claim 1wherein the reaction mixture has a free fatty acid content below 0. One method to reduce the FFA level in fats and oils is to remove them by distillation. In one embodiment, method in FIG.