Austempering and Martempering in metallurgy \ Graphes, Temperatures, Processes, Advantages and Disadvantages. Martempering and Austempering. of steel. September Steel can be heat treated to high hardness and strength levels for getting the. Austempering is a heat treating process for medium-to-high carbon ferrous metals which produces a Austempering is a hardening process for metals which yields desirable mechanical properties including: Martempering/ Marquenching.

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Martempering and Austempering: Martempering and Austempering of Steel

As a result, heavier section components required greater hardenability. The results of impact energy and tensile strength that are compared between quenched and tempered to that of modified martempered had no much difference, and the analyst must check for the martempering process.

The most notable difference between austempering and conventional quench and tempering is that it involves holding the workpiece at the quenching temperature for an extended period of time. The most immediate cost savings are realized by machining before heat treatment.

Bloomery produces sponge iron Blast furnace produces pig iron Austempfring blast Hot blast Anthracite iron Direct reduced iron. Modified martempering MM is a similar technique wherein the intermediate quench temperature is below but above the martensite finish temperature [ 34 ].

In steels this may only take a few minutes after the austenitizing martfmpering has been reached throughout the part section, but in cast irons it takes longer. The above post is helpful for the readers regarding the Austempering Technology.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. This austmpering an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

International Journal of Production Research.

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Austemperinf regarding improved impact energy are sparse and appear to be most widely reported for the high-carbon steels. This is a nice post regarding the Austemper. Dry sliding test is conducted on pin disc apparatus against EN32 steel disc having hardness of Hv to measure coefficient of friction based on standard ASTM G Different tests like microstructure analysis, hardness test, impact test, and wear test are carried out after heat treatment process.


This method is used to increase strength, toughness, and to reduce distortion. Posted by Madhawa Habarakada at This phenomenon is responsible for martensite formation, a very effective way to increase surface and sub-surface contact-fatigue resistance.

The austempering of steel was first pioneered in the s by Edgar C. It has been 20 years since the mass production of austemepered ductile iron began.

Steels can be heat treated to high hardness and strength levels. This is evident from the structures austempring which shows the density of carbide.

However, least friction coefficient is shown by annealed samples. Iron and steel production. Abstract The mechanical properties of steel decide its applicability for a particular condition.

Austenite and the higher temperature phases of steel were becoming more and more understood and it was already known that austenite could be retained at room temperature. The thickness can be increased by the use of alloy steels, but then the time for completion of transformation to Bainite may become excessive. Both stages are important for manufacturing the end product with the prescribed specifications.

The casting and heat treating technologies are in close connection. Hardness increased three times with martempering process. It is observed that average friction value is less for annealed one and increased in martempered and austempered samples. Suitability of Steels for Martempering. Variation of weight loss for each minute with constant speed of rotation is measured and average weight loss is calculated.

Gray iron casting – India casting company manufactures and exporters ferrous, ductile, gray iron casting, brake drum products. The bar graph clearly indicates that the most effected pin is annealed when compared to all the pins and the least effected is martempered.

It is important to air-cool throughout the transformation range since rapid cooling through this range is required to produce residual stress patterns similar to those produced by a direct quench and negate any advantages of the process [ 5 ]. Wear resistance of the material was reduced as a result of the presence of phase with low hardness and strength.

History of ferrous metallurgy List of steel producers. After every reading, the friction value for each sample was measured and also the average friction coefficient value Figure 6 was calculated.


The steel is then tempered. From weight loss, wear rate for each minute and average wear rate are calculated and presented in Figure 4. A detailed review of wear resistance properties of ADI was undertaken to examine the potential applications of this material for wear parts, as an alternative to steels, alloyed and white irons, bronzes, and other competitive materials. No significant difference was observed in the wear of steel shafts running against ADI and quenched DI.

The temperature range in which martensite forms is especially important.


The impact strength increased with soaking time in austempered samples up to certain level. The effects of heat treatments ajstempering direct quenching, martempering, and austempering on the retained austenite existing in the microstructure of these steels were investigated. Austempering is heat treatment that is applied to ferrous metalsmost notably steel and ductile iron. In steel it produces a bainite microstructure whereas in cast irons it produces a structure of acicular ferrite and high autempering, stabilized austenite known as ausferrite.

This is especially true where nitrate-nitrite salts are recovered from wash waters with systems that provide essentially no discharge of salts into drains. The knowledge of materials and their properties is of great significance for a production engineer.

The exact boundaries of the austenite phase region depend on the chemistry of the alloy being heat treated. Smelting Bloomery produces sponge iron Blast furnace produces pig iron Cold blast Hot blast Anthracite iron Direct reduced iron.

The austempering heat treatment consists of three steps.

Both microstructures may also be produced via other methods. The average wear rate of heat treated samples with respect to time in dry sliding test is presented in Figure 5. Any steel part or grade of steel responding to oil quenching can be martempered to provide similar physical properties.