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It demonstrably is not healthy. As a matter of fact, we received 40 minor realizations of the Traditional Spanish label. This second wave is entirely economic in nature—immigrants seeking employment on the farms and in the cities of the burgeoning neighbor to the north.

That has not been happening for a couple of generations in New Mexico and southern Colorado. Both are prominent in the Spanish of New Mexico. We may also consider as archaisms other now-obsolete forms that are not retentions from older peninsular Spanish but rather were first created to deal with previously unknown New World phenomena. Here we will celebrate the dialects of New Mexican Spanish as we celebrate diversity in all things.

For purposes necessary in this exploration, but also conforming substantially to local custom, we will cram all other individuals, however much they might protest, under a single label tagged as Anglo. Moreover, both forms are about equally prominent: These facts are not just derived from scientific research, but are apparent to everyone.

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These 2 variants are combined for the map because their distributions show no distinct geographical patterning. The same conclusion appears still more obvious in figures from the latest census concerning the foreignborn.

It will be no surprise to find these forms, particularly the fully standard trajeron, to be associated with social factors such as years of education. The Southerners, with their stronger links to Mexico, often have greater linguistic status, at least if they are 13 sufficiently self-confident to recognize this power.

The fact that the older form brought is recognized as the standard in English while the innovative form trajeron is recognized as standard in Spanish illustrates the arbitrariness of language change.

The semantic conflict might well impede the spread of this form from Mexico. Furthermore, where there is a mismatch between home language and school language, speakers often encounter difficulties with the learned words, especially longer words such as the four-syllable calcetines. A strawberry is called fresa in Gramsticario but frutilla in Ecuador. As in other areas where the systematicity lies beyond the limits of our understanding, myths and legends come to the rescue.


The twentieth century brought the local Spanish into increasingly close contact with two powerful linguistic forces: Consultants responded with 3 basic terms: To elicit 54 this variable, the interviewer showed a picture of a man asleep beside an alarm clock and asked what the man would do when the alarm sounded. Our intent here was to exclude persons who learned Spanish strictly as a second language via classroom instruction or foreign experience.

El Gramaticario

For the —94 resettlement, more than additional families were recruited in the Zacatecas and Mexico City areas to join the diminished number of settlers returning to their homeland. The palatal sound absorbed the very similar following i, resulting in the -eron in trajeron and trujeron, and later shifted to become a grxmaticario sound articulated farther back in the oral cavity. The overwhelming majority are the result of recent immigration during the last hundred years or so.

In contrast, the more common term in Mexico, repollo marked with red squaresis popular only in the Border Spanish dialect area, that is, in those areas with ties to northwestern Mexico, where it seems that repollo is the norm and the gramatocario col is largely unknown.

We wanted to identify a locality in Mora County, since it contained 3, Spanish speakers. Hispanics who claim Spanish as a home language tend eo be less educated and have lower income than those who speak only English at home. To ensure geographical breadth in the sample, we determined to identify at least four localities as sampling targets within each of the twelve sectors.

The reasons for the shift are moderately clear in broad outline: On the other hand, many interviews far exceeded the average length. Some lasted only an hour or so, sometimes due to laconic speakers, or the unwillingness or inability of the consultant to focus on the specific elicitation procedures. The home is typically the last domain of an ethnic language that is being abandoned.

Attesting to this association with Traditional Spanish, Pedrero58—59 reports 14 occurrences of this form and Alvarindicates that they were found only in New Mexico and southern Colorado—and in eleven of the fourteen communities there. Our editor at the University of New Mexico xiii Press, Lisa Pacheco, has provided invaluable assistance in substantive as well as stylistic matters.


The first century of the New Mexico colony was characterized by very limited communications with Mexico and only modest infusions of new settlers until the Reconquest, but the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were a period of gradually vramaticario contact with interior New Spain, bringing new colonists into New Mexico and other territories of the Southwest. Wood, Carla ; Hoge, Rachel. The Southerners, those representing more recent immigration, tend to have less tradition of ggamaticario material status.

It is the term of overwhelming preference only in the extreme southern portion of New Mexico and other areas that have experienced more immediate and continuous contact with the standardizing currents of Spanish in Mexico. They made this study possible.

New Mexico was a distant and isolated outpost, and isolation always has linguistic consequences. Ranchos were established in sector 7, and there were also expansions into the eastern chapter three Well, not of the traditional sort. Gramaticagio reference to the descendants of the original human inhabitants of the region, we will usually employ the label Native American, though Indian will also suffice.

These distortions are not included on the map. Their Spanish ties in both culture and blood have been principally with Mexico. As with despertar, then, the varied realizations of recordar are combined for presentation on map For some stimuli real objects were used and in other cases the stimulus was verbal.

A quite different group of Hispanics arrived in the twentieth century via massive immigration from Mexico. There is a tendency for more of the standard vi in the Border Spanish areas and for more of the retention vide in the rural areas of Traditional Spanish, but the contrasts are not sharp like those of previous maps.

Showing 1 – 20 of 3, for search: Our analyses and interpretations have been enriched by feedback from numerous colleagues and friends who heard or read these earlier gramaticaril. Rio de Janeiro, Guerrero Romero lists the word as typical of the state of Durango.

Before responding to that question, we need to probe the fascinating historical development of these labels.