This article provides an up-to-date survey of hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks that leverage on the respective strengths of optical and wireless. A definitive objective of Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) systems is the meeting of different optical and wireless innovations under a solitary base keeping in mind the end. Survey Smoothly Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Accessing Wireless Networks: Convergence and Challenges. Naseer Hwaidi Alkhazaali, Raed Abduljabbar Aljiznawi.
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Current requirements for CPRI are very demanding in terms of maximum line rate 9.
View at Google Scholar P. Current power grids with their aging infrastructure become increasingly unreliable and are poorly suited to face increasingly frequent outages, for example, the three-day blackout due to trees falling on power lines in the Washington D. In this section, we review a variety of proposed routing algorithms that fiiwi at optimizing the network performance in terms of delay, throughput, packet loss, load balancing, and other important metrics such as path availability and power consumption.
Optimal Pricing for Bandwidth Sharing. fiber-wireeless
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey – Semantic Scholar
Recent progress in optical fiber networkd, especially the maturity of integration and new packaging technologies, has rendered optical fiber access networks a promising low-cost broadband solution.
In sufvey event of one or more link failures, the affected lightpaths are dynamically reconfigured using the redundant fiber paths of the architecture.
Thus, these findings show that FiWi networks are particularly beneficial for supporting peer-to-peer communications among wireless mesh clients and are able to achieve a significantly higher network throughput than conventional WMNs.
The inter-ONU traffic from all ONUs is combined into one fiber by means of a passive combiner, which is attached to one of two input ports of an arrayed-waveguide grating AWG.
According to a recent OECD report on the future digital economy, one of the most promising applications of M2M communications is smart metering, which represents one of the first steps toward realizing the vision of the smart power grid [ ]. It is important to note, however, that in w the goal of utilities is to use only a small number of low-cost, simple, reliable, and future-proof smart grid communications technologies that remain in place for decades after installation.
Figure 1 a shows the fixed wired and wireless access technologies used by broadband subscribers in The integration of solar-powered wireless sensors and low-power fiber optic sensors into a PON was experimentally demonstrated in [ fidi ].
However, this situation is changing rapidly. By simultaneously providing wired and wireless services over the same infrastructure, FiWi access networks are able to consolidate fjwi and wireless access networks fiber-wireless are usually run independently of each other, thus potentially leading to major cost savings.
At the end of each interval, the lightpaths may be dynamically reconfigured in response to varying traffic demands. In other words, when all the traffic goes to the Internet, the throughput of FiWi networks is the same as that of traditional WMNs.
It was shown by means of simulation that in terms of both average delay and packet loss RADAR clearly outperforms minimum hop, shortest path, and predictive throughput routing algorithms for a wide range of failure scenarios such as gateway, ONU, and OLT failures.
By combining the capacity of optical fiber networks with the ubiquity and mobility of wireless networks, FiWi networks form a powerful platform for the support and creation of emerging as well as future unforeseen applications and services, for example, telepresence [ 8 ]. The wireless channels are statically assigned to each radio such that interference is minimized.
Similarly, to alleviate the bandwidth bottleneck of wireless mesh front-end networks, future FiWi access networks are expected to be based on next-generation IEEE Subsequently, each link is assigned its fiwu as weight and CaDAR computes the shortest delay path for each pair of wireless mesh router and gateway. Finally, the research and development vision of an ideal access system architecture was outlined in [ 85 ], identifying the following three key design goals of future broadband access network architectures: This is the time for states to come back actively to change the focus from the stock market indices to the job-creating expansion of the real economy and increase in social wellbeing and to take convergent and synergistic actions that will lead markets and society to the next golden age, or deployment period, where the benefits of new technologies are fully realized across the entire economy, thereby offering a vast innovation and growth potential across multiple economic sectors.
More specifically, the OLT is equipped fiber-wirelesw an array of fixed-tuned transmitters and an array of fixed-tuned receivers, each operating on a different dedicated wavelength channel, for transmitting and receiving data to and from the ONUs.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey
Low-latency, low-cost, and reliable FiWi access networks will also play a key role in realizing surveey smart grid communications infrastructures to facilitate the convergence of Internet technology and renewable energies via an integrated and seamless Energy Internet and to usher in a sustainable Third Industrial Revolution economy.
Recently, the integration of wireless and fiber optic sensors into FiWi access networks has begun to receive increasing attention. In FiWi access networks, packet loss may occur due to various failures, for example, gateway or OLT failure. View at Scopus P.
Access network Wireless mesh network. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless network technologies and QoS provisioning techniques exists for FiWi access networks.
Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Broadband Access Networks in an Age of Convergence: Past, Present, and Future
Unlike DARA, each mesh router maintains a risk list to keep track of failures. A variety of next-generation PON technologies are currently investigated to enable short-term evolutionary and long-term revolutionary upgrades of coexistent Gigabit-class TDM PONs [ 28 ]. According to the Federal Communications Commission FCCbroadband enables individuals and enterprises to access a wide range of resources, services, and products related to education, culture, entertainment, telemedicine, e-commerce, public safety, and homeland security.
To do so, the so-called delay-differentiated routing algorithm DDRA was introduced in [ 46 ].